Accommodation: Adjustments made to focus on objects nearby, including lens thickening, pupil constriction

Aqueous humor: Watery fluid inside the front of the eye

Affected side: The side toward your visual loss

Amblyopia: Visual loss typically in one eye, due to a defect in image processing by the brain

AMD: Age-related Macular Degeneration

Amsler Grid: A test for macular degeneration and macular function

Anaplastologist: A professional who restores (through prosthetic means) a malformed or absent part of the human body; including orbitals (eye and surrounding anatomy)

Anatomy: Having to do with naming parts of the body

Anophthalmos, Anophthalmic: A developmental defect characterized by complete absence of the eye

Anterior chamber: The fluid-filled space between the iris/lens and the inside of the cornea

Apparent Size: The relative amount of space an object occupies in the visual field

Artificial eye: A custom-made plastic duplicate of your other eye; see ocular prosthesis

Astigmatism: Distorted vision due to corneal or lenticular irregularity or shape

Binocularity, binocular: Having or using two eyes, which gives the brain information to make a picture of the world in space; see monocular

Blind spot: A defect in the field of vision—one at the optic nerve is normal

Blur Interpretation: The ability to discriminate and identify an unclear image of an object by relying on context, color and overall shape cues

Cataract: Clouding of the lens behind the iris causing blurry vision; this can occur from injury or disease or aging

Choroid: The vascular layer behind the retina, in front of the sclera

Congenital: From birth; anything you were born with

Conjunctiva: Thin layer of tissue lining the inside of the lids, continues onto the sclera, or lining the socket

Conjunctival sac: The socket

Contrast: The difference between light and shadow or various colors;

Convergence: The eyes look together at objects nearby

Cornea: The outermost, front-most clear layer of the eye; does most of the focusing of images onto the retina

Cosmesis: For the benefit of appearance, looks

Critical Distance: Furthest point from which an object can be visually discriminated

Critical Feature: The parts of an object that yield the most information

Depth: The relative distance of objects and their spatial relationship to each other

Diabetes: Disease affecting the pancreas and the blood sugar

Diabetic Retinopathy: Sight-threatening changes in the retina due to diabetes

Diagnosis: Naming the disease of a patient

Dilation, iris: Opening of the iris wider, making the pupil larger

Dimension, 2-D: A two-dimensional view is flat like a photograph

Dimension, 3-D: A three-dimensional view that has spatial depth

Discrimination: The ability to make distinctions within and/or between visible things

Disparity: Difference between two images or the motion of two things

Distance: An interval between two points in space or time

Ectropion: Turning out of the eyelashes

Entropion: Turning in of the eyelashes

Enophthalmos: Sinking inwards of the eye

Enucleation: Surgical removal of the eyeball

Epithelium: The outermost cell layer of any tissue

Evisceration: Surgical removal of only the inside of the eye, leaving the sclera

Exenteration: Surgical removal of most of the tissues in the orbit

Extraocular muscles: Muscles outside of the eyeball that move the eye

Exophthalmos: Bulging outwards of the eye

Extrude, extrusion: Pushed out, sometimes showing the implant surface

Eye-Hand/Body Coordination: Use of vision to direct body movements more efficiently and easily

Familiar Size: The typical size of any object based upon the individual’s learning experience

Farsightedness: A visual disorder whereby an image entering the visual system (the eye) lands behind the retina causing vision to be clearer at distances than up close

Fixation: Maintaining eye position and focusing gaze on a target

Fornix (plural is fornices): The corner of the conjunctival sac or socket

Fovea: The center of the macula, used for finest vision

Fusion: The melding of two images into a single 3-D picture

Glass eye: An ocular prosthesis, usually made of plastic

Glaucoma: Disease causing nerve damage to the optic nerve, usually by too much pressure in the eyeball

Glaucoma, congenital: Glaucoma caused by blockage of the outflow of the aqueous humor, usually from birth

Glaucoma, low pressure: Caused by high sensitivity to pressure

Hemangioma: A tumor, usually harmless, made up of blood vessels

Hyperopia: See farsightedness

Hydroxyapatite: An ocular implant made from sterilized coral

Implant: Any object sutured into the body. In enucleation, a ball that takes the place of the eyeball—the extraocular muscles are attached to make the implant move with the other eye, covered by the conjunctival sac.

Impression: A casting of the tissues around the socket used to make a custom prosthesis

Infection: An invasion of the body typically caused by bacteria or viruses

Inferior: Toward the bottom

Inflammation: Redness of tissues from the body’s reaction by bringing more blood to the area

Intraocular: Inside the eyeball

Interposition: Visual cue which enables comparative distance judgment (i.e., closer vs. farther away). When one object is in front of and partially blocks another, the object being blocked is further away. The object fully seen is closer to the observer.

Iris: The colored part of the eye which regulates the amount of light coming into the retina; located behind the cornea, in front of the lens

Keratopathy: Any disease of the cornea

Laser: A powerful light that heats up or destroys tissue, usually in surgery

Lasik surgery: One type of refractive keratoplasty performed with a laser

Lens: The element of the eye that finely focuses the light into an image

Localization: Visually finding a target

Low vision: Lower than normal vision, often gradual

Macula: Sensitive area of the retina responsible for central vision

Macular degeneration: Breakdown of the macula causing central loss of vision

Malignant: Cancerous, spreading tumor

©: Synthetic, porous ocular implant

Melanoma: Cancerous tumor from cells that contain pigment (melanin)

Migration: Moving from where intended

Microphthalmia: Congenital disease in which the eyeball never fully developed

Monocular: Referring to having or using only one eye

Motility: Movement of the eye by muscles

Motion disparity: Difference in the moving of two or more objects

Movement: Change in position of part or all of an object

Myopia: A visual disorder whereby an image entering the visual system lands in front of the retina, causing vision to be clearer up close than at distances. See Nearsightedness

Nearsightedness: See Myopia

Nerve: A ‘cable’ carrying electrical signals to or from the brain

Object: Any visible form, person, picture, or substance in the environment

Ocularist: Trained professional who fits and makes ocular prosthetics or artificial eyes

Ocular: Pertaining to the eye

Ocular Prosthesis: An artificial eye

Oculoplastic: Medical specialty to perform plastic surgery near the eyes

OD: Pertaining to the right eye (oculus dexter); OS is left

Ophthalmologist (M.D.): Doctor specializing in the diseases and treatment of the eye

Optic nerve: Large nerve that carries signals to the brain from the retina

Optician: Eye care professional who fits and makes glasses

Optimum Viewing Angle: That angle which provides maximum visibility and minimum discomfort while looking at an object

Optometrist (O.D.): Medical professional specializing in the eye with the exception of performing surgery

Orbit: The bony cone in the skull surrounding the eyeball, nerves and muscles

Orbital Prosthesis: Device which replaces both the eye and the orbital contents

OS: Pertaining to the left eye (os sinister); OD is right

Palpebral fissure: The opening between the eyelids

Pathology: The study of diseases; anything wrong with the body

Peripheral vision: Outer region of the visual field

Periphery: Outermost part

Perspective: One of several ways to tell distance on a two dimensional plane

Perspective, Atmospheric: Objects in front are sharper than those in the distance

Perspective, Contrast: Colors, distinct shadows, and highlights lessen with distance

Perspective, Overlap: Objects in front cross over and cover our view of objects behind

Perspective, Vanishing: Objects get smaller and closer together in the distance

Posterior: Part toward the back

Preferred Viewing Distance: Distance at which an object can be most easity discriminated and/or correctly identified

Presbyopia: With age, the flexibility of the lens of the eye is less, causing images to blur up close

Prognosis: The most-likely future of a patient

Prosthesis: Artificial eye; anything that replaces normal anatomy

Ptosis: Droopy eyelid

Ptisis bulbi: Eyeball that is shrunken, scarred

Pupil: Hole in the iris allowing light to the retina, gets larger in dilation, smaller in constriction

Refractive keratoplasty: Surgery to correct vision by reshaping the cornea

Relative movement: Moving your eye/head/body in order to appreciate an object’s location (in space)

Retina, Retinal: Light sensitive part of the eye, like the film in a camera; referring to the retina

Retinitis pigmentosa: Progressively blinding disease affecting the pigment in the eye

Retinoblastoma: Congenital tumor inside the eye

Retinopathy, diabetic: Either non-proliferative leaking of the blood vessels in the retina or proliferative fibrosis and new vessels on the retina due to complications of diabetes

Retinopathy, proliferative: Diabetic retinopathy possibly causing retinal detachment

Retinopathy, sympathetic: The good eye is threatened to catch the disease of the damaged eye

Scanning: Use of eye and head movements to search for a target

Sclera: White, tough outer coating of the eyeball

Scleral Shell: A type of thin prosthesis worn over a non-seeing eye

Shoreline: The edge or border between the sidewalk and grassline

Socket: The conjunctival sac in front of the implant which holds an artificial eye

Spatial Relationships: The ability to orient one’s body in space and to perceive the position of objects in relation to oneself and to other objects

Square Off: Use of one’s body for establishing a perpendicular alignment to a straight surface

Stereopsis: The ability to use three-dimensional binocular vision

Sulcus; superior sulcus: Deep skin groove around the upper eyelid; “superior sulcus” means a hollow above the upper eyelid

Superior: Towards the top

Sympathetic ophthalmia: Disease of the sightless eye affecting the good eye

Tactual: The sense of touch

Target: A visual object, symbol or event in the environment

Tears, artificial: Moistening eye drops

Three-Dimensional (3-D) Form Perception: The ability to identify tangible concrete objects

Tonometry: Test of the pressure inside the eye

Topography: Physical features of a place or region

Tracing: Visually following a stationary line

Tracking: Visually following a moving object

Two-Dimensional (2-D) Form Perception: The ability to identify pictures of objects, such as photographs or directions on environmental signs

Visual acuity: Strength of vision; example: A Visual Acuity (VA) of 20/20 is seeing at 20 feet what a normal eye sees at 20 feet; 20/200 is seeing at 20 feet what a normal eye sees at 200 feet, thus worse vision

Visual Closure: Identifying a target when only part of it can be seen

Visual field: Test of the range of vision side to side, up to down

Vitreous, vitrectomy: Posterior fluid in the eyeball

Chapter 1. An Unhappy Landing
Chapter 2. An Awkward Takeoff
Chapter 3. Jolts of Reality
Chapter 4. Flying High
Chapter 5. How About You?
Chapter 6. Seeing in 3-D—How It Works
Chapter 7. What Has Changed?
Chapter 8. Getting Back to 3-D
Chapter 9. Avoiding Problems and Possible Mistakes
Chapter 10. In the Driver’s Seat
Chapter 11. The Active Life
Chapter 12. Let Technology Help
Chapter 13. Keeping the Good Eye Good
Chapter 14. Seeing to Your Looks
Chapter 15. Eye-making (Ocularistry)
Chapter 16. Driving and Piloting Licenses
Chapter 17. For Parents Only
Chapter 18. Senior Class
Chapter 19. In Good Company